Isolering Standard ISO 9869

ISO 9869 – 2

Uddrag af Standard

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This document was prepared by ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use in the built environment, SC 1, Test and measurement methods.
A list of all parts in the ISO 9869 series can be found on the ISO website.
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Introduction ISO 9869 – 2

The ISO 9869 series describes the in-situ measurement of the thermal transmission properties of plane building components, primarily consisting of opaque layers perpendicular to the heat flow and having no significant lateral heat flow. The thermal transmittance of a building element (U-value) is defined in ISO 7345 as the “Heat flow rate in the steady state condition divided by area and by the temperature difference between the surroundings on each side of a system”. Since steady state conditions are never encountered on a site in practice, such a simple measurement is not possible and thereby some statistical methods are introduced. One of the simplest methods is using the mean values over a sufficiently long period of time. The required time for observation for reliable measurements depends on the thermal properties of the building components and the natures of the temperature difference between the surroundings on each side of them.
ISO 9869-1 describes the method which is used to estimate the thermal steady-state properties of a building element from heat flow meter (HFM) measurements through plane building components. Annex B describes the statistical methods of simple mean and the sophisticated method of dynamic analysis method for steady state properties. This document, describes the calculation method for the density of heat flow rate through both the evaluation of the internal surface thermal resistance and the measuring of the temperature difference between the indoor surface temperature of the building element and the indoor environmental temperature using an infrared camera (thermo-viewer). It also describes the statistical methods of simple mean with less observing duration considering night observation and building components with light heat capacity.
This document provides a preliminary and handy measuring method for the in-situ measurement of the thermal transmission properties of plane building components and thereby the further simplifications are applied compared with the method described in ISO 9869-1. The method described in this document is expected as a method of a handy diagnostic method of the thermal transmission properties of plane building components with light heat capacity such as those in frame structure dwelling.
The thermal performance of a part of the building element is evaluated by obtaining the heat absorption (heat penetration) at the part of the indoor surface by multiplying the indoor total heat transfer coefficient of the part surface by the difference between the part indoor surface temperature and the indoor environmental temperature. The thermal transmittance (U-value) of the building components for steady state condition can be obtained with the averages of the observed values over the certain period of time.
The indoor surface temperature distribution of the building component is measured using an IR camera. The indoor environmental temperature is measured by installing the environmental temperature sensor (ET sensor) on the surface of the building component, and the indoor total heat transfer coefficient of the surface of the building component is measured using a heat transfer coefficient sensor. Even the indoor measurement is intended to be carried on with less influence of solar radiation so the standard can be used on building elements on which indoor sides are not exposed to direct sunlight through adjacent windows.
1 Scope
This document describes the infrared method for measuring the thermal resistance and thermal transmittance of opaque building elements on existing buildings when observing high emissivity diffuse surface using an infrared (IR) camera. This document demonstrates a screening test by quantitative evaluation to identify the thermal performance defect area of building elements.
This document aims to measure the thermal transmittance (U-value) of a frame structure dwelling with light thermal mass, typically with a daily thermal capacity calculated according to ISO 13786 below 30 kJ/(m2K).
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 7345, Thermal performance of buildings and building components — Physical quantities and definitions
ISO 8301, Thermal insulation — Determination of steady-state thermal resistance and related properties — Heat flow meter apparatus
ISO 8302, Thermal insulation — Determination of steady-state thermal resistance and related properties — Guarded hot plate apparatus
ISO 9869-1, Thermal insulation — Building elements — In-situ measurement of thermal resistance and thermal transmittance — Part 1: Heat flow meter method

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 7345 and the following apply.
ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at https://www.electropedia.org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https://www.iso.org/obp

3.1
thermography
image of a specific band of surface radiance detected with an infrared camera (3.2)
Note 1 to entry: On known and uniform high emissivity surfaces, with known and controlled irradiance from the background, and with the proper instrument calibration and operator compensation, the radiance image can be converted to a temperature distribution.
3.2
infrared camera
instrument that collects the infrared radiant energy from a target surface and produces an image in monochrome (black and white) or colour, where the grey shades or colour hues are related to target surface apparent temperature distribution
3.3
total heat transfer coefficient
sum of the convective heat transfer coefficient and the radiative heat transfer coefficient of the surface of a building element
Note 1 to entry: It is assumed to be measurable using the heat transfer coefficient sensor.
3.4
heat transfer coefficient sensor
sensor to approximately measure the total heat transfer coefficient (3.3) of the surface of a building element which can measure the total heat transfer coefficient in the neighbourhood of a section of the building element
3.5
environmental temperature
conceptual temperature taking account of the indoor and outdoor air temperatures and radiant heat of a building element used for calculating the thermal transmittance (thermal resistance) of the building element
Note 1 to entry: A temperature measured by an environmental temperature sensor (3.6) is treated as the environmental temperature.
3.6
environmental temperature sensor
ET sensor
sensor that takes an approximate measure of the indoor and outdoor environmental temperatures of a building element to be measured.

Only informative sections of standards are publicly available.

Bibliography
[1] S. Kato, K. Kuroki, S. Hagihara, “Method of In-Situ Measurement of Thermal Insulation Performance of Building Elements Using Infrared Camera”, The Sixth International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation & Energy Conservation in Buildings(IAQVEC2007),III, pp.511-518, 2007.10
[2] S. Lee, S. Kato, “Feasibility Study of In Situ Measurement Method Using Infrared Camera to Measure U-Value of Walls, 10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS, Clima 2010
[3] ISO 6781:1983, Thermal insulation — Qualitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes — Infrared method
[4] S. Hagihara, K. Kuroki, A. Nagata, S. Kato, Y. Nakamura, “Development of In-situ Measurement Methods of the Insulation Properties of Building Elements: Part 2,” Summaries of Papers, Annual Meeting of Architectural Institute of Japan, D-2, pp 121-122, 2006.
[5] K. Watanabe, “Principles of Architectural Planning II,” Maruzen, 1979.
[6] “New and Revised Edition of Outline of Architecture 8,” Shokokusha Publishing, 1969.
[7] ISO 6781-3:2015, Performance of buildings — Detection of heat, air and moisture irregularities in buildings by infrared methods — Part 3: Qualifications of equipment operators, data analysts and report writers
[8] ISO 6946, Building components and building elements — Thermal resistance and thermal transmittance — Calculation method
[9] ISO 8990, Thermal insulation — Determination of steady-state thermal transmission properties — Calibrated and guarded hot box
[10] ISO 9346, Thermal insulation — Mass transfer-Physical quantities and definitions
[11] IEC 60584-1, Thermocouples — Part 1: Reference tables